It can be frightening to hear that a child has cancer or a blood disorder. It is acknowledged that neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of infancy. It is an embryonal malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts (pluripotent sympathetic cells). Researchers are looking for genetic source of childhood cancer. The common blood disorders in children are leukemia and lymphoma. Leukemia is a disease of the white blood cells. The most common type of pediatric leukemia is acute lymphocytic leukemia. Other types of leukemia that occur less frequently in children are acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia. Lymphomas (Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) are the third most common cancer in children. Based on the characteristics and microscopic appearance of the cancer cell, the pediatric lymphomas are divided into Hodgkin Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hence learning more about the advances in cancer detection and images becomes a prominent subject to cure childhood cancer.